Turning Exploratory into Action

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Consideration for categorical data

Why perform EDA?

  • Detecting patterns and relationships

  • Generating questions or hypotheses

  • Prepare data for machine learning model

Representative data

  • Sample represents the population

Categorical classes

  • Classes = labels


pd.crosstab(planes['Source'], planes['Destination'])

# Aggregate value with pd.crosstab
pd.crosstab(planes['Source'], planes['Destination'], values=planes['Price'], aggfunc="median")

Checking for class imbalance

# Print the relative frequency of Job_Category


# Cross-tabulate Company_Size and Experience
print(pd.crosstab(salaries["Company_Size"], salaries["Experience"]))

# Cross-tabulate Job_Category and Company_Size
print(pd.crosstab(salaries["Job_Category"], salaries["Company_Size"]))

# Cross-tabulate Job_Category and Company_Size
print(pd.crosstab(salaries["Job_Category"], salaries["Company_Size"],
            values=salaries["Salary_USD"], aggfunc="mean"))

Generating new features

Extracting correlation

# Get the month of the response
salaries["month"] = salaries["date_of_response"].dt.month

# Extract the weekday of the response
salaries["weekday"] = salaries['date_of_response'].dt.weekday

# Create a heatmap
sns.heatmap(salaries.corr(), annot=True)

Calculating salaries percentiles

# Find the 25th percentile
twenty_fifth = salaries["Salary_USD"].quantile(0.25)

# Save the median
salaries_median = salaries["Salary_USD"].median()

# Gather the 75th percentile
seventy_fifth = salaries['Salary_USD'].quantile(0.75)
print(twenty_fifth, salaries_median, seventy_fifth)

Categorizing salaries

# Create salary labels
salary_labels = ["entry", "mid", "senior", "exec"]

# Create the salary ranges list
salary_ranges = [0, twenty_fifth, salaries_median, seventy_fifth, salaries["Salary_USD"].max()]

# Create salary_level
salaries["salary_level"] = pd.cut(salaries["Salary_USD"],

# Plot the count of salary levels at companies of different sizes
sns.countplot(data=salaries, x="Company_Size", hue="salary_level")

Generating hypotheses

Comparing salaries

# Filter for employees in the US or GB
usa_and_gb = salaries[salaries["Employee_Location"].isin(["US", "GB"])]

# Create a barplot of salaries by location
sns.barplot(data=usa_and_gb, x="Employee_Location", y="Salary_USD")

Choosing hypotheses

# Create a bar plot of salary versus company size, factoring in employment status
sns.barplot(data=salaries, x="Company_Size", y="Salary_USD", hue="Employment_Status")